A Phase 2 Study of Docetaxel, Ramucirumab, and Pembrolizumab for Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) who Progressed on Platinum-Doublet and PD-1/PD-L1 Blockade



      There is an urgent and unmet need for more effective treatment options for patients with metastatic and recurrent non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who progressed on platinum-based therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), and targeted therapies. Currently, the combination of docetaxel (D) and ramucirumab (R) is the next best salvage therapy with a modest historical progression free survival (PFS) of 4.5 months and 6-month PFS rate of 37% predating the era of ICI use. Anecdotal reports in patients who progressed on ICI suggest a higher response rate to docetaxel compared to historical experience. Furthermore, tumor related angiogenesis promotes tumor growth and may contribute to immune escape in patients treated with ICI. Therapeutic combination with anti-angiogenic, ICI, and chemotherapy have independently demonstrated clinical efficacy without additive toxicities in NSCLC patients.

      Patients and methods

      This multicenter, single arm, open label, phase 2 study will evaluate the safety and preliminary efficacy of the combination of docetaxel 75 mg/m2, ramucirumab 10 mg/kg, and pembrolizumab 200 mg in up to 41 patients with metastatic or recurrent NSCLC after progression on concomitant or sequential platinum-based chemotherapy and ICI. This treatment will be given intravenously on the same day every 3 weeks until disease progression, occurrence of severe side effects, or no clinical benefit. The primary endpoint is 6-month PFS rate.


      This is the first study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ICI combined with docetaxel and ramucirumab. The findings could provide valuable information for developing new treatment strategies for NSCLC patients.


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